Amazing 34 natural resources in Akwa Ibom: Locations and Uses
As Akwa Ibom marks the 34 anniversary of its statehood, Morenews.ng peeps into the history of the 21st state of the Federal and examines and celebrates what makes it tick and click. This article highlight 34 natural resources in Akwa Ibom State, their uses, and location.
What are natural resources?
Anything that may be used can be defined as a resource. Air, water, food, plants, animals, minerals, metals, and everything else in nature that is useful to people is referred to as a ‘Resource.’
Natural resources are those that can only be found in nature and cannot be produced by humans. Minerals, ores, and plants are examples of natural resources that provide natural materials for human consumption and economic usage.
What are examples of resources?
Natural resources include oil, coal, natural gas, metals, stone, and sand. Air, sunlight, soil, and water are examples of other natural resources. Natural resources include animals, birds, fish, and vegetation. Food, fuel, and raw materials for manufacturing are all made from natural resources.
What are the 10 types of resources?
Top 11 Natural Resources in the World
-Water: Although the world is largely made up of water, only approximately 2-1/2 percent of it is fresh water.
-Clean air is essential for life to exist on this planet.
-Coal. Coal is projected to have a lifespan of fewer than 200 years.
Among the things that give Nigeria her status as the Giant of Africa, is her extraordinary potential as well as human and natural resources.
Nigeria is blessed with abundant natural resources, and the mineral industry remains the main source of Nigeria’s foreign exchange and provides more than 90% of the country’s export value. Nigeria produces more than two million barrels per day (b/d) in crude oil from various fields.
One state that easily comes to mind in these exploits is Akwa Ibom. Akwa Ibom State is endowed with various minerals, natural gas, nitrate, and petroleum; these make up the top 34 natural resources Akwa Ibom.
Akwa Ibom State is located in the south-eastern region of Nigeria. The petroleum industry contributes substantially to the economy of Akwa Ibom State as it constitutes more than 90% of its revenue for export commodities.
Akwa Ibom state has various Natural resources that include petroleum (largest producer in Nigeria), nitrate (the raw material used in fertilizers), natural gas, clay, salt, limestone (used to make cement), glass sand (used for making glass bottles) coal.
Akwa Ibom in Brief
The then-military administration of General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida established Akwa Ibom State on September 23, 1987. Years of struggle by the people who occupied the mainland part of the erstwhile Cross River State culminated in the foundation of the state.
The state is bordered on the east by Rivers State, on the west by Cross River State, on the north by Abia State, and on the south by the Gulf of Guinea. It is located between latitudes 4o 32” and 5o 33” north and longitudes 7o 35” and 8o 25” east.
The state of Akwa Ibom has a total land area of 7,249 square kilometers. Disputed territories are not taken into account in this area. In terms of landmass, it is Nigeria’s tenth largest state. The State is home to 13.4 percent of Nigeria’s 960-kilometer Atlantic Ocean coastline.
The state of Akwa Ibom is located in the tropical zone, with green foliage trees and plants dominating the landscape. It makes up a significant portion of the country’s oil-palm belt. From Oron in the east, through Mbo and Ibeno, to Ikot Abasi in the west, the Atlantic shoreline spans 129 kilometers.
The saline water swamp forest, freshwater swamp forest, and rain forest are the three distinct vegetation zones in the state.
Main Economic Activities
Fishing (for riverine and coastal populations), farming (primarily for highland dwellers), trading, partisanship, and white-collar services are the people’s main economic activities. A strong public sector employs a large share of the State’s workforce.
The Geology of Akwa Ibom State: An Overview
What is Akwa Ibom known for?
There are a variety of mineral resources in our land that can be commercially utilized.
Akwa Ibom is richly endowed with natural mineral deposits comprising crude oil deposits, natural gas deposits, salt production amongst others that are being exploited commercially by both government agencies as well as private companies.
Natural resources in Nigeria are the major contributor to the economy of Nigeria, which is currently in recession. Natural resources are grouped into four main categories: solid minerals (ores), petroleum and gas, water, and renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and agricultural waste.
Petroleum and Gas
1 . Petroleum
Petroleum and gas resources in Nigeria are the most valuable natural resources of Nigeria.
Akwa Ibom State contributes the bulk of these resources The state is endowed with petroleum and natural gas among other natural resources. The oil industry accounts for about 50% of natural resources in Akwa Ibom State. Akwa Ibom is currently the highest oil- and gas-producing state in the country (with an estimated production of 800,000 barrels per day)
2 . Natural gas
Natural gas accounts for 30 percent of Nigeria’s oil production and is used mainly in power generation. The country produces millions of barrels of oil per day which account for 95 percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Natural gas is the second most important energy source after crude oil in Nigeria, accounting for 30% or so of the primary energy supply.
Natural gas is being used to power various industries across the state. Natural Gas has become one of Nigeria’s most important natural resources which contributes significantly to providing electricity for industrial purposes, manufacturing, and domestic use. Natural gases are also used in the production of fertilizers.
Natural Gas is another major resource in Akwa Ibom State. Natural gas produced by the State accounts for more than half of Nigeria’s total production. This natural gas deposit in Akwa Ibom is estimated to supply Nigeria’s natural gas needs for the next 30 years. Natural Gas is one of Akwa Ibom State’s major resources.
The state is also home to some natural gas reserves, which are currently being honed for commercial use by interested investors in the energy sector. Natural gas that can be used as cooking fuel or power generation has been found onshore and offshore in Akwa Ibom State. Mbo Local Government Area remains the major supplier.
Solid minerals (ores)
Nigeria is blessed with abundant solid minerals (ores). Solid minerals in Nigeria include iron ore, lead, and zinc. Natural Gas is Akwa Ibom State’s major solid mineral (ore) resource. Other minerals in the state include salt, coal, and limestone.
The reserves of these minerals are commercially viable due to demand for them in local industries such as mining companies that process ores into metals or other refined. The Federal Government has established a Ministry of Solid Minerals Development with agencies under it like The Geological Survey.
The known solid minerals in Akwa Ibom State include:
3 . Limestone
Limestone deposits are another mineral found in Akwa Ibom state which can be used as building materials or as raw material for cement and other industrial products such as iron, steel, and alumina.
This has prompted moves by multinationals like Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) into investing heavily in exploration activities.
4 . Salt
It should be known that about 1.5 million tonnes of rock salt are being deposited in Nigeria. It is estimated that up to half a million tons per annum are produced at the Ibom salt works plant. The industry is being developed by Ibom salt limited which is a subsidiary of Akwa Ibom state mining corporation.
Great deposits of salt were reportedly found in Tom Shot Island in Mbo Local Government Area. The name, Tom Shot was supposedly derived from the name of an American oil geologist who visited the island in 1958 and was impressed with the volume of salt pans on the island.
5 . Coal
Nigeria currently has an estimated 15 billion tons of coal reserves with about six billion being recoverable under present technological levels. However, only three million tonnes are currently explored and exploited.
The coal resources are very vast and this makes Akwa Ibom State stand out as one of the few states that have a substantial amount of Natural Resources. The state is believed to be endowed with over 13 billion metric tonnes.
The coal deposits are found in the Mbo area of Oron Local Government area, about 20km from Uyo City. The reserves have not been quantified but there were indications that they would be sufficient for domestic needs if developed adequately.
6 . Clay
Clay is one of the natural resources in Akwa Ibom that is alongside hydrocarbons, limestone, gravel, etc. If the clay deposit is exploited by the government, it will generate foreign exchange for the country and also create employment opportunities for the teeming unemployed youths, from the establishment of its associated industries.
Because clays are flexible in nature, they can be used to make native pots and plates from a variety of regions. These clays can also be utilized as local bricks for mud dwellings in the hamlet, as well as being applied to the body as a coolant.
Nonetheless, due to its natural color, the clay from Eka Nnung Ikot in Uruk Anam LGA cannot be utilized for productions that require brightness, but it can be used for other industrial applications that do not require brightness.
7 . Giver Nitrate
Nitrates are common components of fertilizers. Akwa has abundant nitrates in its soil and this explains the of Governor Udom Emmanuel to venture into fertiliser production. Already, Mr. Udom Emmanuel has signed a deal to build a multibillion (1.4 billion) dollar fertilizer plant in the state. The arrangement between OCP Africa, the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority, and the government of Akwa Ibom is projected to result in one of the world’s largest fertilizer projects.
8 . Glass sand
Glass sand could be used to make glass, ceramics, and linoleum. Akwa Ibom is home to abundant Glass sand which can be used for industrial purposes like making tiles, white-washing roofing materials, etc.
Akwa Ibom is also a glass sand hotspot with reserves found in many places such as Itu and Eket local government areas of the state. Natural gas from coal deposits is used to turn the raw materials into usable products like glass, ceramics, etc.
9 . Lead
Lead is also found in Akwa Ibom. It can be used in the manufacture of batteries, paint pigments, and pipes. It was the major reason for the establishment of the moribund Sunshine Batteries Limited in Ukana, Essien Udim Local Government Area.
10 . Zinc
Zinc is highly found in Akwa Ibom. Zinc is used in the manufacture of batteries, galvanizing, and alloys. The Ibom Power Company Limited requires zinc for the manufacturing of its power cables while Essien Udim Local Government Area capitalizes on its reserves to produce ingots.
11 . Lignite
Akwa Ibom is also blessed with lignite. Lignite is used in the production of cement. Dangote Cement in Itu is a mixture of clay and lignite, it has a high degree which makes its products durable and strong.
12 . Uranium
Another mineral (ore) making the list of natural resources in Akwa Ibom is Uranium. Uranium is used for the production of atomic energy. The state has deposits uranium in Nsit Ibom, Eket, and Oron local government areas.
13 . Granite and Stone
Stones are found in Akwa Ibom. In fact, the state is one of Nigeria’s largest producers of building blocks. Stones in Akwa Ibom can be found in the following local government areas: Oron, Ikot Ekpene, and Itu.
14 . Charcoal
Charcoals are used for cooking. Akwa Ibom is among the largest producer of charcoal in Nigeria and has deposits found in the following local government areas: Mbo, Oron, Eastern Obolo.
Water and renewable energy
15 . Water
Another aspect of natural resources is water. Water is critical for life.
There are several income-generating activities available in this area but they require capital input.
Akwa Ibom is blessed with abundant freshwater resources, rivers, and streams that provide water to the people in the state. It arguably has the highest number of rivers in Nigeria. The major riverine areas include Oron, Mbo, Udung Uko, Okobo, Uruan, Ibeno Eastern Obolo.
The Natural Resources Development Commission (NRDC) is responsible for developing renewable energy. Renewable energy provides sources such as wind, solar, tidal, geothermal some of which can be found in Akwa Ibom State.
Akwa Ibom state government has recognized the importance of renewable energy and is making efforts to integrate it into its economy for sustainable development. The Akwa Ibom Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP) was developed in 2016 by CleanMax Solar Limited aimed at facilitating the provision of clean power through grid-connected solar power plants to start up the solar industry in Nigeria.
16 . Solar
The climatic condition of Akwa Ibom favours solar energy with the state recording about 300 days of sunshine. Akwa Ibom has the potentials for harnessing solar energy, which can be used to meet up electricity demands in rural areas through mini-grids and stand-alone applications such as street lighting systems.
Since the administration of Arc (Obong) Victor Attah, Akwa Ibom State has been investing in solar energy with the establishment of solar-related companies.
The state government reportedly purchased 5000 solar street lights in 2016. Other initiatives of the administration have been the introduction and operation of a 50kW solar plant at its Government House and 30 kW and 25 KW plants at its State Secretariat Complex.
17 . Wind power
Wind power can also be harnessed in Akwa Ibom. The state has the highest wind speeds in Nigeria. Akwa Ibom should invest in several wind farms.
The energy created by the ocean tides is known as tidal energy. The flow of that much water requires a lot of energy.
Tidal energy is a renewable source of energy that is derived from the natural rise and fall of ocean tides and currents. Turbines and paddles are two examples of these technologies. The surge of ocean waters during the rise and fall of tides generates tidal energy.
We don’t “use up” anything when we convert wave and tidal energy to something usable like electricity, so it’s considered renewable energy.
Tidal is a kind of renewable energy that can be harnessed in Akwa Ibom, given the superior tidal waves in the Atlantic Ocean. It is estimated that the amount of energy found in the Atlantic Ocean can power the whole of Africa. This investment opportunity for the next government of Akwa Ibom State as the 2023 governorship election beckons.
Agricultural waste could be used to generate energy.
The Akwa Ibom state government is committed to supporting renewable energy projects by providing land and grid connection as well as other incentives such as tax waivers for investors, which is expected to attract more investments from private developers of renewables into the State.
According to the Chairman, Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency, AKSEPWMA, Prince Akpan Ikim, Akwa Ibom has been launched into a new phase where wastes would no longer be seen as refuse or discarded material, but an asset or resource to reduce not only the landfill volumes but also the dependency on fossil fuels by generating cleaner energy.
Agricultural waste can be used in the form of biomass briquettes for use as cooking fuel or pressed into pellets which could be burnt directly by industry, commercial and domestic users.
19 . Biomass briquettes
What are biomass briquettes? Where are biomass briquettes used?
Biomass briquettes are utilized in a variety of applications.
Biomass briquettes are biofuel that can be used instead of coal and charcoal. Biomass briquettes are utilized in a variety of applications.
They are used to heat, cook, and generate energy by heating industrial boilers to generate electricity from steam. Briquettes are most commonly used in poor countries where energy sources are scarce.
How are biomass briquettes made?
Through Roller Presses.
The world standard technology for producing ovoid (pillow-shaped) charcoal briquettes from a variety of biomass types is roller presses. Ground biomass is squeezed into a die, or small pockets, when forced through the gap between the two rollers, generating the densified product.
Agricultural resources and agro-raw materials
Agricultural resources in Akwa Ibom include plants and livestock production.
Plants: Plant resources in Akwa Ibom include:
20 . Palm fruits
Natural palm oil is produced from the flesh of the fruit. Palm Oil is used to create biodiesel fuel which increases the demand for it globally every year.
21 . Palm kernel
Palm kernel is a major agricultural resource in Akwa Ibom State. Palm kernels are the seeds of oil palm trees and they represent a major source of edible fats in Akwa Ibom State. It remains a source of livelihood in some communities.
Palm kernel oil comes from pressing out oils in the seed of palms. It can be used for cooking or as an additive to margarine.
22 . Kola nuts
Although widely eaten in Northern and Western Nigeria and widely celebrated in Eastern Nigeria, kola nuts are widely grown in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. They should be celebrated during this 34th anniversary of Akwa Ibom State’s creation.
23 . Cocoa
Akwa Ibom soil is suitable for planting cocoa trees. For many years Akwa Ibom State Government has invested and encouraged cocoa farming in the state.
Cocoa beans are obtained by grinding cocoa nibs into a paste using heat, then added to such foods as hot chocolate and cocoa drinks, brownies, and other baked goods.
24 . Yam
Yams are starchy root vegetables that can be baked or boiled into a solid mass. The also boasts of yam tubers, which are widely cultivated in the state. It is believed that Akwa Ibom State farmers have perfected yam cultivation to a degree where it has become synonymous with Akwa Ibom because of its superior quality worldwide.
25 . Cassavas
Cassavas are roots with edible parts that grow underground. Cassavas are highly grown in Akwa Ibom State. The state is one of the largest producers of cassavas in Nigeria. It can be processed into a variety of food products, such as garri, a staple food in the area, starch, and cassava flour.
26 . Vegetable
Vegetable farming is a thriving business in Akwa Ibom State. The state has one of the largest vegetable production Nigeria, which employs the majority of its residents. It markets vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, pepper, etc., under the name “Akwa Fresh”.
27 . Waterleaf
Waterleaf farming is another lucrative business in Akwa Ibom. This type of farming is usually done in the wetlands. The plant has several uses, including medicine and food products such as Afang Soup and Edikang Ikong ( two popular dishes in Akwa Ibom).
28 . Rice Production
Rice production also contributes to the economy of Akwa Ibom State. It produces rice that can be processed into various food products. The state is a growing supplier of rice in the country.
29 . Livestock Farming
Akwa Ibom is also home to livestock farmers who rear sheep, goats, pigs among others. It produces meat products such as beef, goat meat which are supplied throughout the state.
30 . Fish
Fish farming is the mainstay in Akwa Ibom. The state has a large number of rivers and creeks that are conducive to fish farming. The variety of fish found in the riverine areas of Oron, Mbo, Okobo, Ibeno, and Eastern Obolo are second to none. Akwa Ibom is indeed home of fish.
31 . Crayfish
Akwa Ibom is Nigeria’s producer of crayfish. The state has an abundant resource of crayfish that is fished along the rivers and creeks. Again crayfish is largely produced in Oron, Mbo, Okobo, Udung Uko, and Ibeno Local Government Areas.
32 . Seafood
Akwa Ibom also boasts of rich seafood such as oysters and clams. They can be found in Eket, Ibeno, Mbo Rivers, and other creeks of the state. Other kinds of seafood in Akwa Ibom are prawns, snails, and crabs.
The production and rearing of chickens and birds is a fast-growing business in Akwa Ibom. The state has one of the largest poultry markets in Nigeria.
34 . Forest products
Forests provide a variety of commodities and services in addition to playing a crucial part in maintaining the fragile country’s ecosystem. Forest goods include commercial and personal use materials.
Akwa Ibom is rich in forest products and resources. Forest products in Akwa Ibom State include timber, firewood, lumber, paper as well as “special forest products” such as medicinal plants, fungi, edible fruits and nuts, and other natural products derived from a forest. Akwa Ibom is rich in forest resources. Mbo Forest Game provides huge forest products in Akwa Ibom.